What is the prostate?
The prostate is a gland located in the lower urinary tract, under the bladder and around the urethra. Only men have a prostate. It produces the fluid which carries semen. The prostate has smooth muscles which help to push out the semen during ejaculation.
A normal prostate is about the size of a large walnut and has a volume of 20 millilitres. The prostate slowly grows as men grow older.
2 main diseases affect the prostate
- • Prostate cancer
- • Benign prostate hyperplasia
One is independent of the other and they can both coexist in the same patient.
1. Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is a malignant tumour in the prostate. The treatment and experience depend on the specific characteristics of the tumour and the expertise of your medical team.
Most prostate cancers develop slowly and do not cause symptoms. Fast-growing prostate cancer is less common. The risk of getting prostate cancer increases with age. This is why some authorities recommend screening after the age of 50 and sometimes at younger ages specially in the presence of a positive family history. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly men in Europe. The survival rate for prostate cancer is relatively high and is still going up with the help of advanced technology.
Treatment of prostate Cancer:
If the cancer is still limited to prostate, surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy carries high chances of curing the patient.
With the help of cutting edge technology, like robotic surgery, the removal of the prostate had become a routine quick surgery with outstanding functional outcomes. Meaning, early recovery and return to daily activities. Very high continence rates and preservation of erection when possible depending on the type of tumor.
The expertise of the team performing this surgery and the technology being used is in direct relation with the outcomes and patient satisfaction.
2. Benign prostate enlargement
Prostate diseases are usually associated with older age. They can cause bothersome symptoms in the lower urinary tract in men over the age of 50. These symptoms may be caused by an enlargement of the prostate, a condition which is known as benign prostatic enlargement.
It is a common condition and is related to hormonal changes which happen as men grow older. Prostate diseases can be very worrying, however, it is not a prostate cancer. It does not become prostate cancer, even if it is left untreated, however, can cause bothersome urinary symptoms. Both benign prostatic enlargement and prostate cancer may develop with age and they can both coexist in the same patient.
Treatment of Benign prostate enlargement:
Treatment can be medical or surgical depending on the case of the patient.
The main medications used in such treatments are:
- • Alpha-blockers
- • 5alpha-reductase inhibitors
- • Muscarinic receptor antagonists
- • Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors
- • A combination of medications
- • Herbal medications
In more advanced cases, surgery is recommended especially in the presence of:
- • Kidney failure
- • Dilatation of your kidneys
- • Inability to urinate (urinary retention)
- • Recurring urinary tract infection
- • Recurring blood in the urine
- • Bladder stone