Learn about Overactive Bladder

Learn about Overactive Bladder

Overactive Bladder

What is an overactive bladder?

Overactive bladder, also called OAB, describes a combination of symptoms that can include:

-An uncontrolled frequent and sudden urge to urinate.

-Pass to urinate many times during the day and night.

-Urgency incontinence.

These symptoms can disrupt your life, even if you are able to get to the toilet in time when you feel an urge to urinate.


-The difficulty of controlling the sudden urge to urinate.

-Urgency incontinence.

-Urinate few times in 24 hours.

-Wake up few times at night to urinate.

Follow the link for more information about the symptoms of overactive bladder.


-Weak pelvic muscles: Pregnancy and childbirth can lead to the fragility of the pelvic muscles; so the bladder will sag out of its normal position. All of these factors can cause leakage.

-Nerve damage: Trauma and diseases (Parkinson’s, multiple sclerosis) can cause the damage of the nerves that sent signals to the brain and bladder to squeeze urine out of the body; so the patient will empty his bladder at the wrong time.

-Medicines that cause a rapid increase in urine production.

-Excess consumption of caffeine or alcohol.

-Infection: A urinary tract infection (UTI), can irritate the bladder nerves and cause compression to the bladder.

-Excess weight: The overweight causes extra pressure on your bladder. This can lead to urge incontinence.

-Hormonal  deficiency in estrogen after menopause

Sometimes the doctor doesn’t find a cause for the overactive bladder.

Risk factors

-Age: You have a high risk of having an overactive bladder when you get older. Age also raises your risk of other conditions that affect bladder control: BPH, diabetes…

-Women have more risk of developing an overactive bladder than men for several causes that affect the hormones and the pelvic muscles: menstruation, pregnancy, and menopause.


-People who have certain diseases like stroke or multiple sclerosis.


Overactive bladder can affect your life and cause:



-Sleep disorders (Waking up often at night to pee).

-Negative effects on sexuality.


Diagnosis and Treatment
Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Diagnosis of urinary tract infections in women

First, the doctor will ask about the symptoms and the sexual activity of the patient; a urine analysis and urine culture will be required to prove the infection and determine the nature of the bacteria.

In case of recurrent UTIs, a doctor may request further diagnostic testing to determine the cause:

Diagnostic imaging: to assess the urinary tract by using ultrasound, CT and MRI scanning, radiation tracking, or X-rays.

Cystoscopy: This diagnostic exam helps the doctor to examine the lining of your bladder with a camera lens, which inserted through the urethra through a long thin tube.

Treatment of urinary tract infections in women

-Antibiotic: The patient will probably start taking the antibiotic before getting the results of his urine test.

When the results (accompanied by an antibiogram) are done, your doctor may change the prescription if the test shows that the bacteria causing your UTI is resistant to this antibiotic.

-Medications for pain relief.

-Drinking lots of water.

-Urinating frequently.

If the infection is not treated, it can lead to kidney damage.

In case of recurrent infections in women:

-Take a single dose of an antibiotic after sexual intercourse.

-Take a single, daily dose of an antibiotic for 6 months.

-Undergo estrogen therapy in case of menopause especially put vaginal eggs.

Some TIPS to reduce the risk of UTIs in women:

-Drink lots of water and urinate frequently.

-Reduce the quantity of alcohol and caffeine.

-Urinate directly after sexual intercourse.

-Wipe from front to back after urinating and defecating.

-Maintain good personal hygiene of the genital area.

-Sanitary pads or menstrual cups are preferred to tampons. Avoid using a diaphragm or spermicide for birth control.

-Not use any perfumed product in the genital area.

-Wear cotton underwear.

Let’s Know About Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Let’s Know About Urinary Tract Infections In Women

Urinary tract infections in women

Women have a high risk (over 50 percent) of developing a urinary tract infection (UTI), especially in the case of pregnancy; where a urine test is required even if there are no symptoms because a urine infection can be dangerous for both maternal and infant health.


The essential cause is the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), found in the digestive system. Chlamydia and mycoplasma bacteria can cause infection in the urethra, but not in the bladder.

When the infection is located:

-In the bladder: cystitis.

-In the urethra: urethritis.

-In the kidney: pyelonephritis.

The ureters are very rarely the site of infection.

Risk factors

-Sexual intercourse with multiple or new partners (especially Chlamydia and gonorrhea).


-Bad personal hygiene.

-Problems emptying the bladder completely.

-A urinary catheter.

-Inability to control bowel movements.

-Blocked flow of urine.

Kidney stones.



-A procedure aimed at the urinary tract.

-A suppression of the immune system.

-Immobility for a long period.

-Using spermicides and tampons.

-Take a lot of antibiotics, which can destroy the natural flora of the bowel and urinary tract.


Common symptoms of a UTI include:

-Urinate frequently in small quantities.

-Blood in the urine.

-Bad smell of urine.

-Pain when urinating.

-Nausea and vomiting.

-Muscle aches and abdominal pains.

-In case of Cystitis: low fever, pressure, and cramping in the abdomen and lower back.


Some upper UTIs can lead to serious problems; recurrent or non-treated kidney infections can cause permanent damage.

I the case of pregnancy, kidney infections can lead to premature delivery or to low birth weight.

Read more


Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Diagnosis of  urinary tract infections in men

Your doctor will ask about:

-Your symptoms.

-Your sexual activity.

Before thinking about a prostate problem like BPH and get an ultrasound image of your prostate, the doctor required urine tests (urine analysis and urine culture) to confirm the diagnostic of UTI.

Treatment for a UTI in men

To treat UTIs, the doctor prescripts an antibiotic based on the nature of the bacteria that caused the infection.

The patient will probably start taking the antibiotic before getting the results of his urine test.

When the results are done, your doctor may change the prescription if the test shows that the bacteria causing your UTI is resistant to this antibiotic.

In case of a lower urinary tract infection, the treatment will take a week or less; and if you have an upper-tract infection, you may need to take antibiotics for up to 2 weeks.

Some tips to prevent UTI in men

You should:

-Empty your bladder often.

-Drink a lot of water.

-Clean the area under the foreskin after showering if not circumcised.

-Clean your genital organ before and after sex; to remove bacteria.

-Clean from front to back when toileting.

-Wearing condoms during sexual relations.

-Urinate after sex, to remove any bacteria that might have been passed during intercourse.

Follow the link to know more about the prevention of UTI in men.






Let’s Know About Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Let’s Know About Urinary Tract Infections In Men

Urinary Tract infections in Men

What is a urinary tract infection?

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects any part of your urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra).

There are 2 types of UTI:

-Upper tract: in the ureters or kidneys.

-Lower tract: in the bladder, urethra, or prostate in men.

Most urinary tract infections (UTIs) affect the bladder and the urethra, which is the tube that drains urine from the bladder to outside the body.

Urinary tract infections are more common in women.

Urinary Tract Infections in Men

UTI in men is more complicated and can affect the kidneys and the upper urinary tract, and leads to a severe case that will require surgery.


-Pain when you urinate.

-Frequent need to urinate.

-Difficulty to start urinating.

-A slow urine stream or urinary incontinence.

-A sudden need to urinate.

-Blood in the urine.

-Pain in the lower part of the abdomen, in the upper back, and below your stomach.

-Cloudy and bad-smelling urine.

In a severe UTI, a man can have these symptoms: fever, nausea, vomiting, and chills (when the infection affects the upper urinary tract).


Most UTIs in men are caused by a bacteria called Escherichia coli which already exists in the body; especially in older men after the age of 50.

In younger men, UTI is caused by sexually transmitted infections (STIs); Chlamydia and gonorrhea are the most two sexually transmitted bacterias.

Follow the link for more information about the causes of UTIs in men.

Risk factors


-Kidney stones.

-Prostate problems in older men: BPH, prostatitis.

-An abnormal narrowing of the urethra.


-Resist the urge to urinate for too long.

-Not been circumcised.

-A past UTI.

-Anal intercourse.

-Medication that affects the immune system.

-A procedure that used instrumentation on the urinary tract.

UTI Complications

If the lower UTI is not treated, your kidneys can be affected by the infection. If the kidney infection is untreated, the patient can have chronic kidney disease or kidney failure; and this infection can lead to sepsis.

Can urinary tract infections cause infertility in males?

Some urine infections can cause infertility in man:


This is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by bacterial infection. The symptoms include urination burn, enlarged testicles, and discharges from the penis. When this infection is not treated, it can cause infertility in men by blocking the production of sperm.


Gonorrhea is another STI that can cause infertility in men. The symptoms include green, yellow, or white secretions from the penis, dysuria, burn on the penis, pain in the enlarged testicles. It can lead to an infection of the prostate gland, and the diminution of the quality and the production of the sperm.


Mycoplasma (STI) can decrease the motility of sperm cells; which can lead to infertility.

Read more







Interesting Prostate Problems

Interesting Prostate Problems

What is the Prostate ?

The prostate is a gland located in the lower urinary tract, under the bladder, and around the urethra. Only men have a prostate. It produces the fluid which carries semen. The prostate has smooth muscles which help to push out the semen during ejaculation.

A normal prostate is about the size of a large walnut and has a volume of 20 milliliters. The prostate slowly grows as men grow older.

2 main diseases affect the prostate

  • Prostate cancer
  • Benign prostate hyperplasia

One is independent of the other and they can both coexist in the same patient.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer is a malignant tumor in the prostate. The treatment and experience depend on the specific characteristics of the tumor and the expertise of your medical team. Most prostate cancers develop slowly and do not cause symptoms. Fast-growing prostate cancer is less common. The risk of getting prostate cancer increases with age. This is why some authorities recommend screening after the age of 50 and sometimes at younger ages specially in the presence of positive family history. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in elderly men in Europe. The survival rate for prostate cancer is relatively high and is still going up with the help of advanced technology.

Treatment of Prostate Cancer

If the cancer is still limited to the prostate, surgical removal of the prostate or radiotherapy carries high chances of curing the patient.

With the help of cutting edge technology, like robotic surgery, the removal of the prostate had become a routine quick surgery with outstanding functional outcomes. Meaning, early recovery and return to daily activities. Very high continence rates and preservation of erection when possible depending on the type of tumor.

The expertise of the team performing this surgery and the technology being used is in direct relation with the outcomes and patient satisfaction. When done in expert hands, average hospital stay is being only 1 to 2 days and most of the time, the patients are being sent home without foley catheter as we are performing a special reconstruction and anastomosis prosposed by Dr. Alex Mottrie that allows us to remove the catheter on day 2 post op.

For more information on treatment of prostate Cancer through surgical approach (Robotic assisted Radical Prostatectomy), please check the interview below in which Dr. Fouad Khoury describes the advantages of minimally invasive robotic approach for those kind procedures.


Benign Prostate Enlargement

Prostate diseases are usually associated with older age. They can cause bothersome symptoms in the lower urinary tract in men over the age of 50. These symptoms may be caused by an enlargement of the prostate, a condition which is known as benign prostate enlargement.

It is a common condition and is related to hormonal changes that happen as men grow older. Prostate diseases can be very worrying, however, it is not prostate cancer. It does not become prostate cancer, even if it is left untreated, however, can cause bothersome urinary symptoms. Both benign prostate enlargement and prostate cancer may develop with age and they can both coexist in the same patient.

Treatment of Benign Prostate Enlargement

Treatment can be medical or surgical depending on the case of the patient.

The main medications used in such treatments are:

  • Alpha-blockers
  • 5 alpha-reductase inhibitors
  • Muscarinic receptor antagonists
  • Phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors
  • A combination of medications
  • Herbal medications

In more advanced cases, surgery is recommended especially in the presence of:

  • Kidney failure
  • Dilatation of your kidneys
  • Inability to urinate (urinary retention)
  • Recurring urinary tract infection
  • Recurring blood in the urine
  • Bladder stone


Click on the following link for additional knowledge about Dr Fouad Khoury’s porfolio and expertise.